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Martha Simpson Eastlake

I met Martha through our Tucson Writers' Group. Her life, art, journey through this world, still inspire, give me strength and joy!

Martha Simpson Eastlake (1898 - 1984) was an American painter, ceramicist, builder, and writer. She was among the first artists given one-person shows at early contemporary galleries in Paris, New York, and California. However, her life is obscured by the better known lives of her brother, paleontologist Dr. George Gaylord Simpson; his wife, psychologist Dr. Anne Roe Simpson; and Martha's husband, writer William Derry Eastlake.

Early Years

Martha Lee Simpson [1] was born on June 22, 1898 in Chicago, Illinois to Helen J. (Kinney) and Joseph A. Simpson. The family included her older sister Margaret (Peg, 1895-1991) and her younger brother, George Gaylord Simpson (1902-1984). They relocated to Denver, Colorado in 1902. Martha grew up in Denver where she trekked the Rocky Mountains with her lawyer father as he evaluated investment opportunities. Sometimes they were rich, sometimes they struggled to pay rent. Her father first worked as a claims adjuster for the Colorado & Southern Railroad. However, he soon shifted to speculation in mining, land and irrigation schemes. He briefly moved his family to Wyoming, then back to Denver where they stayed until 1918. They lived in seven different houses as his fortunes fluctuated. [2] In spite of this, Martha and George formed long-lasting bonds with two neighborhood children, Bob Roe and his sister, Anne Roe, whom George would later marry. George created museums. Martha and Anne staged puppet plays and other shows in the attics of the houses. [3]

Education

Martha received art degrees in Chicago and Paris. Due to her father's financial straits she paid her own way, working as a waitress to support herself and her studies. [4] She began her art education at the Art Institute of Chicago. Martha's instructors at the School [5] of the Art Institute of Chicago [6] included George Bellows [7] and Randall Davey, [8] both students of Robert Henri [9], a leading figure of the Ashcan School of American Realism. Students who studied with Bellows and Davy later received permission from the directors to continue their studies, but without formal teachers. [10] Davy invited his students to study with John French Sloan [11] in New Mexico during the summer of 1920. They made studios in an old church and lived in its parsonage. [12] Sloan painted Martha [13] and her fellow students roasting hot dogs around a night campfire in Picnic on a Ridge. [14] She would return to New Mexico many times during her career.

 [Small girl snuggled against her step-mother: 252k]

Figure 1: Woman and Child
Anne Roe with one of George Gaylord Simpson's daughters, possibly Elizabeth. [16] To save money during the Depression, Martha, George and Anne happily shared different New York City apartments during 1932-1935. Martha wrote a recipe for "Mongolian" waffles - so called because the recipe included cream of tartar - on the wall of one of the apartments. George's letters include a layout sketch of one of these apartments with a large room set aside for "M's studio." [17] Martha created a bookplate for her brother in 1929 which he used it in all his books. [18] Another oil painting, Man Smoking, signed "Simpson" with a New York exhibition label on the verso, number 22, sold on the secondary market in 2009. [19] Woman and Child and Man Smoking are representative of the style of work from Simpson's New York period.

Some of her fellow students traveled to Paris together after graduation, but Martha did not go. She lived with her parents who were now in Washington, DC. A January 1923 letter from George mentioned two of her recent linoleum block prints, Beauty and Cleopatra and her Slave. [20] A photograph of Martha around this time shows a serious, composed young woman with strong, angular features, dark hair pulled back in a chignon, large eyes. She wears a formal V-neck dress with a string of beads and cradles a lute. It was taken before the summer of 1923 when she cut her hair. [21] The wealth and freedom of the Roaring Twenties broadened women's opportunities from the right to vote with the ratification of the United States 19th Amendment in 1920, to more education, to shorter haircuts. [22]

Martha joined a Yale Excursion to Europe in 1924. [23] She stayed to paint and study art with cubist André Lhote. After three years, she graduated [24] from his Paris Montparnasse Academy. [25] By late 1927, she was painting in Les Arcs near Cannes.

George's letters mention two exhibits in France: a salon and another show upcoming in the spring. He wrote, "You seek beauty as I seek truth, and I fear, or rather hope, that you have the better of it." [26]

Early Career: Western USA, France, New York City

Martha began her American career in the West, but her early inspiration came from the art centers of Paris and then New York. She returned to the States and Santa Fe, New Mexico near the end of 1927. She later sailed to Hawaii where her mother had been raised in Honolulu by Anglican lay missionary grandparents. [27] Martha funded her travel around the islands by selling paintings, making puppets and staging shows. [28] It was perhaps on this trip that she had a one-person show at the Honolulu Art Museum [29]. Martha moved to Tacoma, Washington in 1928 or 1929 to teach art at a private girls' school, the Annie Wright Seminary. American author Mary McCarthy in her autobiography, How I Grew, recalled Martha as "amusing, unconventional, ... who taught us some innocently naughty French songs...." [30]

Martha returned to France in 1930. Until October 1932, she painted and gave shows of her work, probably at Galerie Zak, [31] which specialized in Modern European and Latin American art. [32] She hoped to make money, but Europe was in bad economic straits. [33] The Great Depression, which began with the New York stock market crash of 1929 and lasted until the beginning of World War 2, caused economic devastation throughout the world.

She was in New York by 1933, where she began exhibiting. That year, The New Yorker listed "Paintings by Martha Simpson". [34] Group shows in 1934-1935 included work at Argent Gallery and at Contemporary Arts, possibly with an earlier one-person show at Contemporary Arts, [35] before her 1935 one-person show, "Paintings of Personalities", by Martha Eastlake. [36] Also in 1935, she began to show at Midtown Galleries, one of the early iconic contemporary galleries in New York City. [37] The gallery's records in the Smithsonian's Archives of American Art document her one-person exhibition in October 1936. [38] She was included in the Life magazine article on the gallery and its emerging artists. [39] Eighteen of her paintings are listed in the gallery inventory along with Isabel Bishop, Paul Cadmus, Philip Guston, Betty Parsons and others. [40]

A 1935 The Brooklyn Daily Eagle review reads, "The Midtown Gallery introduces a highly interesting painter in the person of Martha Simpson,... such work is sure to have an air of freshness and fluency. So it is with Miss Simpson's exhibition. We might stop for a moment and ask ourselves if this or that particular canvas does not derive its special quality from a rather close study of Degas and other French painters, but on the whole the paintings offer so much that can be enjoyed that we would be fools to quibble." [41]

A Magazine of Art review of her 1936 show noted that she continued to develop her art. "Simpson's exhibit of paintings at the Midtown Galleries reveals a change in palette and technique." [42] There was a 1936 review of her oils and pastels in The New Yorker. [43] She had another solo exhibition of her paintings at Midtown in 1937. [44]

Her work was also exhibited in 1936 at the "Second Biennial Exhibition, Part Two-Watercolors and Pastels" held at the Whitney Museum of American Art; [45] in 1939 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art; [46] and in 1941 in "Directions in American Painting" at the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. [47]

Mid Career: California

Martha exhibited in California beginning in 1938. The California exhibitions ultimately marked a shift in her career. Besides her gallery shows, Martha ran successful ceramic and real estate businesses and wrote her first book in California.

The 1938 Art Digest calendar listed four California exhibitions. [48] They included her December one-person show at Southern California's ground-breaking contemporary gallery, the Stanley Rose Gallery in Hollywood. [49] She had another one-person exhibit at the Stanley Rose Gallery in December 1939. Painter Eétienne Ret, a life-long friend from her Paris days, [50] and Maynard Dixon were also exhibiting there. [51]

The Stanley Rose Bookstore in Los Angeles included an art room. The two spaces exhibited many artists including Philip Guston, [52] Marc Chagall, Paul Klee, Fernand Leger, Helen Lundeberg, Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri Matisse, Georges Braque, Joan Miro, Juan Gris, Rufino Tamayo, Diego Rivera, Max Ernst, Pablo Picasso, Maynard Dixon, Native American Art, photographers Ansel Adams, Dorothea Lange, Edward and Brett Weston and many more. [53]

Martha left New York to reside in Southern California sometime before World War II. Her older sister and soon, her parents, lived in Los Angeles. To support herself, and later her husband, aspiring writer William Eastlake, she branched out. [54]

The supply of ceramic crafts from Asia to the US market ceased during World War II. Martha developed a decorative ceramic business. Her line included dancers, Madonnas, toilet water bottles and flower vases. [55] George wrote her in November 1943 from Sicily, "Your $15,000 business (approximately $210,000 USD in 2016 [56]) leaves me aghast. My impractical little sister turns out to be the only member of the family to build up a business! Cripes, now anything can happen." [57]

She may have already begun to build houses. A September 1943 letter from George mentions, "Marty's business, new houses & all." [58]

The Eastlakes married in 1943. Bill reported to the U. S. Army in 1944. [60] He served in France and Belgium during World War II. [61]

After World War II, Essai, an aspiring Swiss literary magazine, offered Bill a position. Martha gave up her ceramics business to move to Switzerland with him. The magazine's initial and only issue included his first published short story, "Ishimoto's Land". The Eastlakes then lived briefly in post-war Paris before they returned to California in 1950. [62]

The couple borrowed money to buy a large, rundown estate in Van Nueys. Martha rehabbed the original house. [63] She subdivided the rest into lots, built, and sold the homes. This income supported them. [64] Martha continued to paint and show at the Stanley Rose Gallery. Other California exhibits during her career included one-person shows at the Santa Barbara Museum of Art and the de Young museum in San Francisco. [65]

In addition, she wrote a popular art appreciation book. Art is for Everyone, by Martha Simpson, was published by McGraw Hill in 1951 with a forward by New York journalist, critic, and writer Winthrop Sargeant. [66] It was well received, but it frustrated her that the book garnered more attention than her painting. [67] [68]

Art is for Everyone is available from the Internet Archive: Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming at https://archive.org/details/foreveryone00east.

Bill was also frustrated. He wanted to move to New Mexico, to a ranch where he could write and live his dream of a cowboy in the American West. [69] They cashed out the real estate business in 1955 and bought a ranch in New Mexico. [70]

Mid Career: New Mexico

Martha had lived and worked in the cosmopolitan cities of Chicago, New York, Paris and Los Angeles. Remote, rural New Mexico challenged her with new situations and opportunities.

Her brother and sister-in-law already owned a primitive summer home in the mountains above the La Jara Valley in the northwest corner of New Mexico. [71] The Eastlakes' 400 acre ranch spread out nearby in the Jemez Mountains near Cuba, NM. Bill wrote many of his novels there. Go In Beauty, his first novel, was published in 1956.

Martha continued her multifaceted career. She painted, but, far from urban art centers, her focus shifted. They owned rental houses in Cuba, NM. [72] She edited and reworked Bill's drafts. [73] She hosted house guests who found their way up from Santa Fe and Taos, including Julian Huxley, Ed Abbey, Robert Creeley and others. [74]

One frequent visitor was George A. Morrison. He worked for New Mexico TV stations and admired Bill's writing. Martha's brother George was often there. The three men spent the afternoons trading stories. Morrison wrote, "Throughout that afternoon I listened to tales .... Not once was there a mention of the talents of the other artist present, to wit, Martha Eastlake, whose work lined the walls of that section of the ranch barn that had been set aside and insulated as a studio for Martha's easel.... "I imagined Martha as playing the role of 'second fiddler,' to her brother first of all, and later to her husband Bill." [75]

[A group of 3 small boys: 236k]

Figure 2: Mexico City Boys with Paper Hats.
The Eastlakes traveled extensively during the 1960s to Greece, Morocco, Spain, Russia and Mexico. [76] Martha made the initial sketch for this oil painting in a Mexico City barrio. It is representative of her bright colors and sometimes playful later work - one little boy gooses the other. [77]

Rural New Mexico cooking adventures inspired her second book. Rattlesnake Under Glass, a Roundup of Authentic Western Recipes, by Martha Eastlake, was published in 1965 by Simon and Shuster, New York. Martha's ranchland-inspired ancedotes and recipes were seasoned with humor: "Pack Mule Lamb Shoulder, Santa Fe Cock, Eggplant Platte River, Popcorn Pudding. Sandoval County Beer, Bar X Leg of Lamb". [78] They combined ingredients from all facets of her culinary life including French, Chinese and Hawaiian influences. [79]

Rattlesnake received critical acclaim from book editors in over forty newspapers. [80] The New York Times Book Review wrote, "Rattlesnake Under Glass ... gives a well written insight into the life of an isolated New Mexico ranch and of neighboring Mexicans, Indians and Anglos. The food is amusing, simple and utterly authentic...." [81] Martha won the 1966 New Mexico Press Women's Zia Award, which honored an outstanding woman writer in the state. [82]

Bill published his World War II novel, Castle Keep, making 1965 a good year for the couple. Besides his novels, he wrote screenplays and taught writing at the University of New Mexico. Castle Keep was made into a 1969 movie starring Burt Lancaster. The movie gave the Eastlakes financial stability. [83]

Health issues in 1967 forced George and Anne to leave their faculty appointments at Cambridge and Harvard, as well as sell their New Mexico retreat. They moved to a home they owned in Tucson, Arizona. The Eastlakes followed. They sold their properties in New Mexico and joined them in 1970. [84] Bill was a writer in residence at the University of Arizona for several years. [85]

Late Career: Arizona

In Tucson, Martha began to actively exhibit again. She and Bill were together as honored guests at a March 1971 exhibit of her paintings and sculptures opening at the St. Phillip's in the Hills Gallery. [86] However, Martha divorced him later in 1971. [87] He went with a woman friend to Nogales. [88] Martha stayed in Tucson where she continued to exhibit her paintings and ceramic sculptures, to write and to travel.

Adventure lured her to the wilds of Papua New Guinea in 1974. Excerpts from her journal and two colorful photographs, "Highland Woman" and "Kukukuku Pygmy Dancer", appeared in a full page article in the Arizona Daily Star.

"August 15, Sepik River: ...We are their first tourists and they find us hilariously funny... They surround us in mobs, they pat our behinds and stoke our legs to be sure we are real...

"August 19, Middle Sepik: ...Today we visited the village [89] where Margaret Mead spent so much time. ...Here Wayne, [90] the boat owner and trader, bought tons of artifacts, loaded one boat high with them so we, the tourists, had to come back to the houseboat in the other river truck sitting on each other." [91]

The University of Albuquerque Gallery, Albuquerque, New Mexico hosted a 1973 dual exhibit of Martha's paintings and "primitive style" ceramic sculptures [92] along with work by watercolorist, Ou Mie Shu. [93] Other documented exhibitions included work in galleries in Albuquerque as well as Tucson and Phoenix, AZ. [94] She contributed her drawing of Jean Follain to a 1977 collection of his poetry. [95]

Martha preferred to work with clay in her later years. She may have explored ceramics at the Art Institute of Chicago which would have given her the background to run her California commercial ceramics business. However, her own sculptures were experimental and performative. She embraced forms from many cultures, often added an element of humor and ignored the detail points of technique in pushing the sheer materiality of the medium as a vehicle for fine art expression.

 [a photo collage of 8 clay sculptures: 302k]

Figure 3: Ceramic Sculptures.
Sculptures that did not make the gallery cut when they came out of Martha's small electric kiln ended up in the backyard. However, the mermaid and the two imaginary animals with a ball that blend French and Mexican influences were created for her Tucson garden. [96]
The whimsical sculpture of a child balanced on a ball while holding another ball above his head was a gift for Tucson friends. [97] The unglazed fragment of a man resembles the figures in the published image from her 1973 Albuquerque exhibition. [98]

In an interview for her exhibition at the University of Albuquerque, she spoke of her exhilaration in working with clay, "It is certainly the most direct and responsive of all mediums; the most kinetic and tactile, from nerve and muscle direct to guts." [99]

Martha continued to create until the end of her life. She died unexpectedly of emphysema in July 1984. [100] Her approach to her life and to her work is summed up in another quote from her Albuquerque interview, "As for my own work, I'm always experimenting and attempting a tour de force." [101]

References

  1. Lee is Martha Lee Simpson's correct middle name. George Gaylord Simpson Papers. American Philosophical Society. Retrieved May 2016. http://amphilsoc.org/mole/view?docId=ead/Mss.Ms.Coll.31-ead.xml. Laporte, Léo F. Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 16, 18. References to Martha Lee Simpson as Martha Hoit Simpson in some sources appear to be in error. Martha Hoit was an artist who studied and exhibited in the same time frame. She married Harry Simpson of San Francisco and exhibited under her married name of Martha Simpson.
  2. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 5. George and Martha were very close. She entrusted his letters to the archives of the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia. Much of the background documentation in this biography comes from those and associated family letters collected into Laporte's book.
  3. Laporte, Léo F., "Walking tour of paleontologist George G. Simpson's boyhood neighborhood." Geological Society of America Field Guide I (1999): 93-95.
  4. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 15, 19.
  5. SAIC. School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Retrieved May 2016. http://www.saic.edu/index.html.
  6. Albuquerque Journal, Albuquerque, New Mexico. October 28, 1973: 7. Retrieved May 2016. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/156353232/.
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Bellows. Retrieved June 2016. Bellows, a realist painter, focused on bold depictions of New York City urban life.
  8. ifpda international fine print dealers association. "Randall Davey". Retrieved June 2016. http://www.ifpda.org/content/node/601. Davey studied architecture, then painting with Henri. He was a member of the Taos Society of Artists.
  9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Henri. Retrieved June 2016. Henri was a leader and teacher of the Ashcan School of American realism. His woman students became a significant force in American art
  10. Bulliet, C. J. Artists of Chicago, Past and Present. "No. 57 Frances Strain." Retrieved June 2016. http://www.illinoisart.org/#!no-57-frances-strain/c186c.
  11. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_French_Sloan. Retrieved June 2016. Sloan spent part of each year in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
  12. Bulliet, C. J. Artists of Chicago, Past and Present. "No. 57 Frances Strain". Retrieved June 2016. http://www.illinoisart.org/#!no-57-frances-strain/c186c.
  13. Christie's. "Important American Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture of the 19th and 20th Centuries, Lot 190: John Sloan (1871-1951), May 26, 1993, New York, NY." Retrieved April, 2016. http://www.invaluable.com/auction-lot/john-sloan-1871-1951-190-c-dpftby3hiu?afRedir=true.
  14. New Mexico Museum of Art. "Right at the Blinking Light - 5/12/2014." Retrieved April, 2016. http://nmartmuseum.org/cypher-space/right-at-the-blinking-light-5122014.html.
  15. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_French_Sloan. Retrieved June 2016.
  16. Photo courtesy of a private collection, purchased from the artist, Tucson, Arizona, 1980s. Oil on canvas, signed on the lower left "Simpson" and later "Eastlake". 24" x 20" framed in a wooden frame, overall 34" x 30" x 3".
  17. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 6, 8-11, 27, 28, 116, 174, 180, 183, 184, 193-197, 200, 206, 214, 219. George Gaylord Simpson married Lydia Pedroja while he was a student at Yale. They had four daughters: Helen, Patricia Gaylord, Joan and Elizabeth. However, their marriage was troubled. He legally separated from her in 1932. In the meantime, he and Anne Roe, who was also married, began a relationship. George and Lydia divorced in 1938. He ultimately gained custody of the girls. He and Anne married that year. They were the first married couple to receive Harvard professorial appointments.
  18. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 122, 125.
  19. Aspire Auctions. "88. Martha Simpson (American, 20th Century) Man Smoking." Retrieved June 2016. https://www.aspireauctions.com/#!/catalog/215/803/lot/30829.
  20. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 27, 29.
  21. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 34, 61.
  22. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roaring_Twenties. Retrieved June 2016.
  23. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 37.
  24. Tucson Daily Citizen. Tucson, AZ. March 6, 1971: 38. Retrieved June 2016. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/23210559/.
  25. Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. October 28, 1973: 26. Retrieved May 2016. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/156353232/.
  26. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 51, 55, 57.
  27. Woman's Board of Missions for the Pacific. Annual Report, Volume 40, "Life Members of Woman's Board": 106.
  28. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 55, 60, 64, 105.
  29. Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. October 28, 1973: 26. Retrieved June 2016. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/156353232/.
  30. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 132.
  31. Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. October 28, 1973: 26. Retrieved June 2016. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/156353232/.
  32. Zak | The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Leonard A. Lauder Research Center for Modern Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/art/libraries-and-research-centers/leonard-lauder-research-center/programs-and-resources/index-of-cubist-art-collectors/zak-galerie. Retrieved June 2016. Westfall, Stephen. Art in America. "Between Worlds". February 2016: 65. Galerie Zak hosted a 1930 exhibition of Latin American artists organized by Joaquín Torres-García.
  33. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 140, 149, 179.
  34. The New Yorker, Volume 9. New York: F.-R. Publishing Corporation, 1933: 86.
  35. Mumford, Lewis, and Robert Wojtowicz, ed. Mumford on Modern Art in the 1930s. "The Art Galleries, 1933-134". Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 2007: 103, 114. "Martha Simpson, who has a fine pastel of a mother and child at the present show...."
  36. Magazine of Art, Volume 28. American Federation of Arts, 1935: 63.
  37. The American Artists Profession League. The Art Digest, Combined with The Argus of San Francisco, Vol. X, No. 1. New York, NY, October 1935: 8. Retrieved May 2016. http://www.aaplinc.org/pdf-archive/mag/1935_oct_1-artdigestmag.pdf.
  38. "Midtown Galleries records, 1904-1997". Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved April 2016. http://sova.si.edu/record/AAA.midtgall.
  39. "Midtown Galleries records, 1904-1997". Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved April 2016. http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/midtown-galleries-records-7098/more.
  40. "Midtown Galleries records", 1904-1997. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved April 2016. http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/midtown-galleries-records-7098/more#section_3.
  41. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. October 27, 1935: 36. Retrieved June 2016. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/59989237/.
  42. Magazine of Art, Volume 29. American Federation of Arts, 1936.
  43. The New Yorker, Volume 12. New Yorker Magazine, Incorporated. 1936: 4.
  44. The London Studio, Volume 13. W. E. Rudge, 1937: 48.
  45. Second Biennial Exhibition, Part Two-Watercolors and Pastels, February 18 to March 18, 1936. Whitney Museum of American Art. New York, 1936. Martha Simpson: 175 "The Cocktail Bar, 176 Russia Girl".
  46. Laporte, Léo F. Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 229. George's letter congratulates her. Her painting, Suppertime, was on exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  47. O'Connor, John, Jr. Directions in American Painting. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Institute, Department of Fine Arts, 1941. Exhibition catalog published in conjunction with juried show held October 23 - December 14, 1941. "Artists included in the exhibition are...Martha Simpson...." Retrieved June 2016. specific object/David Platzker. http://www.specificobject.com/objects/info.cfm?object_id=9851#.V1sjRSh7aKU.
  48. Art Digest, Volume 13. "Exhibitions." Art Digest, Incorporated, 1938: 26, 30, 34, 46.
  49. Ianco-Starrels, Josine. Art News. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. December 28, 1986. Retrieved June 2016. http://articles.latimes.com/1986-12-28/entertainment/ca-657_1_modern-art.
  50. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. June 29, 1996. Retrieved June 2016. http://articles.latimes.com/1996-06-29/news/mn-19683_1_etienne-ret.
  51. The Coast, Volumes 2-3, Coast Corporation, California, 1939: 2.
  52. The Morgan Library and Museum. "Philip Guston: Works on Paper", May 2 through August 31, 2008, Chronology. https://www.themorgan.org/sites/default/files/pdf/press/GustonChronology.pdf.
  53. Northridge, David. Daily Kos. "All Things Bookstore: 1930s Hollywood - The Stanley Rose Bookstore." Retrieved June 2016. http://www.dailykos.com/story/2013/4/9/1197057/-All-Things-Bookstore-1930s-Hollywood-The-Stanley-Rose-Bookstore.
  54. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 238.
  55. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 243.
  56. DollarTimes.com. Retrieved June 2016. http://www.dollartimes.com/.
  57. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 243, 252, 253, 255, 266, 267.
  58. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 262.
  59. Malphrus, P. Ellen. "'Dancing Past the Ultimate Arrow': An Overview of William Eastlake's Life and Works". The Review of Contemporary Fiction. June 22, 2006: 8.
  60. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 238, 275.
  61. Malphrus, P. Ellen. "'Dancing Past the Ultimate Arrow': An Overview of William Eastlake's Life and Works." The Review of Contemporary Fiction. June 22, 2006: 9.
  62. Malphrus, P. Ellen. "'Dancing Past the Ultimate Arrow': An Overview of William Eastlake's Life and Works." The Review of Contemporary Fiction. June 22, 2006: 9.
  63. "Eastlakes are Dinner Hosts." The Van Nuys News. Van Nuys, California. February 1951: 34. Retrieved July 2016. https://www.newspapers.com.
  64. Angell, Richard C. "Eastlake: At Home and Abroad." New Mexico Quarterly 34.2. 1964: 204-209.
  65. Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. October 28, 1973: 26. Retrieved June 2016. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/156353232/.
  66. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winthrop_Sargeant. Retrieved June 2016. Sargaent was an American music critic and writer. He wrote for The Brooklyn Daily Eagle which reviewed Martha's New York exhibits.
  67. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 288.
  68. Ten reviews found in newspapers in California, Kentucky, Illinois, Iowa, Nevada, New York, Tennessee and Wisconsin. https://www.newspapers.com/. Retrieved July 2016
  69. Book Rags. "Dictionary of Literary Biography on William (Derry) Eastlake." May 2016: 2. Retrieved June 2016. http://www.bookrags.com/biography/william-derry-eastlake-dlb/2.html.
  70. Malphrus, P. Ellen. "'Dancing Past the Ultimate Arrow': An Overview of William Eastlake's Life and Works." The Review of Contemporary Fiction. June 22, 2006: 10.
  71. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 287.
  72. Santa Fe Trend. '"About Trend - editor - Rena Distasio." Retrieved June 2016. http://santafetrend.com/about/staff.
  73. Miller, Tom. Revenge of the Saguaro: Offbeat Travels Through the America's Southwest. Cinco Puntos Press, El Paso, TX, 2010: 50. "Rumors abounded that she did far more to her husband's manuscripts than simply type and copyedit them; indeed after their divorce in 1971 his writing lacked its former literary snap."
  74. Malphrus, P. Ellen. "'Dancing Past the Ultimate Arrow': An Overview of William Eastlake's Life and Works." The Review of Contemporary Fiction . June 22, 2006: 10.
  75. Morrison, George A. TV Comes to New Mexico, A Romantic History. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2006: 35-36.
  76. Malphrus, P. Ellen. "'Dancing Past the Ultimate Arrow': An Overview of William Eastlake's Life and Works." The Review of Contemporary Fiction. June 22, 2006: 10, 11, 23.
  77. Photo courtesy of a private collection, purchased from the artist, Tucson, Arizona, 1980s. Oil on canvas on masonite. Unsigned, note on back, "Martha Simpson Eastlake, 1970s". 24" x 20"
  78. Daily Independent Journal. San Rafael, CA. December 31, 1965: 9. Retrieved June 2016. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/84858702/.
  79. Her longtime friend, Madeleine, owned a restaurant in Paris. Laporte, Léo F. Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 320.
  80. Forty-six reviews found in newspapers in California, Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, New Mexico, Nebraska, Nevada, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Texas. https://www.newspapers.com/. Retrieved July 2016.
  81. The New York Times Book Review, Volume 2. Arno Press, 1965: 30.
  82. Albuquerque Journal, Albuquerque, NM. July 8, 1966: 46. "Ranch cookery is a far cry from Parisian culinary art, but Martha Eastlake learned puffballs could be substituted for mushrooms ...she soon discovered that her ranch home at Cuba was not quite the year-round vacation she had expected...but she also found a special quality among her neighbors, western hospitality carried over to their cooking. Mrs. Eastlake began compiling recipes from her neighbors. Many of the recipes were included in old cookbooks. Recipes in the cookbook use terminology New Mexico cooks brought to the area by frequently hard-working pioneer women!...The author will be honored by New Mexico Press Women at their Zia Award banquet....The Zia award is given annually to an outstanding woman writer in the state....”
  83. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 319. Malphrus, P. Ellen. "'Dancing Past the Ultimate Arrow': An Overview of William Eastlake's Life and Works." The Review of Contemporary Fiction. June 22, 2006: 23, 25, 28.
  84. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 323.
  85. Bamberger, W. C., William Eastlake: High Desert Interlocutor. The Milford Series, Popular Writers of Today, Volume 65, Borgo Press, 2007: 6.
  86. Tucson Daily Citizen. Tucson, AZ. March 6, 1971: 38. Retrieved June 2016. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/23210559/.
  87. https://people.ucsc.edu/~laporte/simpson/People.html. Laporte, Léo F. Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: Martha H. Simpson (1898-1984). Retrieved September 2016.
  88. Morrison, George A., TV Comes to New Mexico, A Romantic History. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2006: 37.
  89. Tambanum Village, ESP, PNG
  90. Leigh, Carolyn and Ron Perry. Art Dealer in the Last Unknown, Ron Perry and New Guinea Art, the early years, 1964-1973. Carolyn Leigh Studios, Tucson, Arizona, 2011: 99. Wayne Heathcote became a well-known tribal art dealer.
  91. Eastlake, Martha Simpson. "New Guinea Journal". The Arizona Daily Star. January 3, 1975: 1-C.
  92. Morrison, George A., TV Comes to New Mexico, A Romantic History. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2006: 37.
  93. Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. October 28, 1973: 26. Retrieved June 2016. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/156353232/.
  94. The Jo Altshuler Gallery, Phoenix, AZ. Arizona Republic. Phoenix, AZ. August 29, 1965. Retrieved July 2016. https://www.newspapers.com. Knox Gallery, Tucson, AZ. Tucson Daily Citizen. Tucson, AZ. November 7, 1972. Retrieved July 2016. https://www.newspapers.com. New West Gallery, Albuquerque, NM. "Gallery Walk", Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, NM. November 4, 1973. Retrieved July 2016. https://www.newspapers.com.
  95. Feeney, Mary, trans. Jean Follain: 12 Poems. Bilingual Edition, Tucson, AZ: Grilled Flowers International Editions, No. 1., 1977. A copy of this book is in the collection of the University of Arizona Poetry Center.
  96. Ceramics courtesy of private collections, gifts from the artist, Tucson, Arizona, 1983.
  97. Ceramic courtesy of a private collection, gift from the artist, Tucson, Arizona, 1983.
  98. Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. October 28, 1973: 26. Retrieved June 2016. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/156353232/. Dual show with Ou Mie Shu at the University of Albuquerque, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
  99. Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. October 28, 1973: 26. Retrieved June 2016. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/156353232/.
  100. Laporte, Léo F., Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to his family, 1921 - 1970, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1987: 327. George died in 1984, Anne in 1991.
  101. Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. October 28, 1973: 26. Retrieved June 2016. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/156353232/.

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